———. Formular Language and Oral Quality. (If the length of the similes is calculated, 5.8 percent of lines in book 5 are similes vs. 1.7 percent in book 6.) Finally, the conclusion attempts to imagine how a poet could have juggled all the elements that went into the series of choices that produced the individual simile. Never Blotted a Line?

Cambridge, U.K. Fillmore, C. J. In Dividing Homer, Symbolae Osloenses 74 (1999) 5–91, edited by M. S. Jensen. It seems clear that at certain junctures of the narrative the use of the simile was a suggestion from the tradition which the poet could either accept, reject, or modify; similarly, at certain junctures the poet knew from experience that certain topics he had used successfully before were particularly apt.
Then there is a catalogue listing the five companies and their commanders; the largest and bravest contingent is commanded by Hector.14 Such a catalogue has introduced the aristeiai of other warriors.15.

Agamemnon’s Deception.

Many friends have aided me in completing this study. Aeneas gathers his comrades to confront Idomeneus, and the soldiers follow along: Because this tranquil scene introduces some of the goriest fighting and crudest woundings in the Iliad, the effect of the simile emerges only from a view of.


The interpretation of the individual simile requires the constant participation of a co-creating audience, which has heard heroic songs sung in traditional language for generations. 131.

Greek language—Figures of speech.

For recent examples see the illustrations in Hardie 1985 and Heffernan 1993:13–14 (Flaxman’s sculpture); Heffernan concludes; "Exactly what Hephaestus wrought on the shield is ultimately impossible to visualize.". 1989. The simile at 12.167 places wasps and bees within the same simileme by offering them as alternatives. For an earlier review of such analytic criticism see Ameis and Hentze 1897:II:119–24, and for a contemporary version see Thiel 1982:51–122. Whitman 1958:281–82 and Fenik 1968:190–218. He does not memorize someone else’s recitation (certainly not in a verbatim manner), but he does memorize (after a certain fashion) his own.". The proper names also suggest an exotic, remote world, with mythological and historical associations, reminiscent of Othello’s foreign culture and adventurous past. Odysseus as the beggar tells her of his cloak, his brooch, and his herald—all signs rich with meaning. Classical Journal 52:323–28.

The tradition also supplied Homer with a series of characters that provided varied styles and coloration. In addition, the poet presents a view of the general battle at several places, yet at only four junctures does he use a simile (156, 278, 421, and 433). Antitheses provide a structure for the Shield—city and country, war and peace, work and festivity; these are basic, opposed forms of human life that are ordered by an inner polarity. Most critics agree that there are simile families centered on the topics of lions and boars, fire, wind, trees, and gods. Richardson 1993 on 22.248–366 comments on the different quality of the narrative in book 22: "We are constantly aware of the reactions and emotions of the two contestants, of the issues behind the action, in terms of the future fate of Hektor’s body and the fate of Troy itself, and also of the divine hand at work directing the course of events to their inevitable outcome."
See especially Michel 1971:95–101; Fenik 1968:115–58, esp.

They form themselves into a defensive force that is like a fortification or wall (pyrgedon)—thus tying this simile closely to the central object in the narrative.12 Even though the lion is stated to be alone confronting a dangerous group armed with javelins, he never gives way; rather, they back off whenever he charges.

Similes seem equally based in the tradition.

I will argue in this chapter that the close relationship between narrative and similes found elsewhere in Homeric epic offers significant clues to the structuring and interpretation of these problematic books. Imago Mundi: Cosmological and Ideological Aspects of the Shield of Achilles. When Hector breaks through the wall at the end of the book, the poet does use the "like the swift night" simile to emphasize this culminating act, but at the same time he stresses Zeus’ gift of strength (450). As in those cases, Homer is using a point in the narrative to attach a simile—here, Menelaus’ sharp gaze. The Shield is intended as a systematic image of the wider world outside the Iliad.

2001. 82. To a large degree it is the similes in this book that provide the sense of a narrowing chase; as a result the moments focusing on the main characters can be devoted to the development of personal motivations and contrasting purposes. The elements are all present in the lion simileme, especially at 3.23, 5.554, 10.297, 11.383, 15.324, and 18.579. In the heat of the battle, Patroclus—with the aid of Zeus—ignores this limit (16.684–91); one must question whether any warrior in the confusion of battle could identify such an imaginary point.

In Studies Presented to Sterling Dow on His Eightieth Birthday, edited by A. Boegehold et al. This is typical.

Oxford. 36. These similes are placed where the tradition suggests the simile as one among many options and their subjects seem appropriate for the men described. In the same disjointed way, Poseidon paralyzes Alcathous and guards Antilochus (434–36 and 554–55).

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